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SOVEREIGNS OF UNITED-KINGDOM

(Queens and Kings of UK from the creation of the United Kingdom, by the Act of Union of English and Scottish parliaments, 1707, may, the 1st.)


Anne Stuart | George I | George II | George III | George IV | William IV | Victoria | Edward VII | George V | Edward VIII | George VI | Elizabeth II


Anne Stuart

(1665-1714)

 

Anne Stuart reigned from 1702, for 12 years.

It was under her reign that the final union of Scotland and England was effective.

It was also under her reign Gibraltar was conquested.

Accordind to the Petit Larousse : Anne Stuart, London 1665 - id. 1714, queen of Great-Britain and Ireland (1702 - 1714). Daughter of Jacques II, she fought against Louis XIV and united Scotland and England under the name of Great-Britain thanks to the Act of Union (1707).

 

George I

of Hanover

(1660-1727)

 

George I, born and dead in Osnabrück, therefore German, was on his mother's side a descendant of Jacques Stuart I (king of Scotland and England during the fourteenth century), which will allow him to succeed to Anne Stuart from 1714. His reign will last 13 years.

He was by birth elector of Hanover. His inability to speak English added to his rudeness turned him into an impopular character.

According to the Petit Larousse : George  I , Osnabrück 1660 - id. 1727, elector of Hanover (1698 - 1727), king of Great-Britain and Ireland (1714 - 1727). He succeeded to Anne Stuart in accordance with the Establishment Act (1701). Relying on the whigs to govern, he let the real power to his ministers : Stanhope (1717 - 1721) and Walpole (1715 - 1717 and from 1721).

Dynasty of Hanover : Dynasty which reigned over the electorate of Hanover from 1692 and over Great-Britain from 1714. The elector of Hanover, great-grandson on his mother's side of Jacques Stuart I, then became king of Great-Britain under the name of Georges  I .

Hanover, in german Hannover : 1-Ancient German state. Dukedom, then electorate from 1692, Hanover was made a kingdom (1814) and annexed by Prussia (1866). 2-City of Germany, capital of Lower Saxe, on the Leine ; 524 823 inhabitants (Hanoverians). Trade and industrial center (international trade fair). Museums of Lower Saxe and others. The city joined the Hanse (or Hanseatic League) in 1386 and was the residence of dukes and kings of Hanover from 1636.

 

George II

of Hanover

(1683-1760)

 

George August II, son of George I, reigned from 1727 until his death, that is to say for 33 years.

He would be blamed, just like his father, to be more German than English.

Under his reign, Austria succession war and the seven years war founded the English colonial power, to the detriment of France.

According to the Petit Larousse : George II , Herrenhausen 1683 - Kensington 1760, king of Great-Britain and Ireland, and elector of Hanover (1727 - 1760). Son of George I, he kept trusting Walpole, who settled the foundations of the British Empire.

 

George III

of Hanover

(1738-1820)

 

George III reigned from 1760, succeeding to George II who was his grand-father. His reign lasted more than 50 years. In 1811, he was then 73 years old and sick, he transmitted his power to his son.

According to the Petit Larousse : George III , London 1738 - Windsor 1820, king of Great-Britain and Ireland (1760 - 1820), elector (1760 - 1815) then king (1815 - 1820) of Hanover. Grandson of George II, he lost the English colonies of America and fought against the French Revolution and Napoleon. He was the first of the Hanovers to be interested in England.

See the page under cartwheels

 

George IV

of Hanover

(1762-1830)

 

George IV was already in power as George III still lived, but his official reign only began when his father died, in 1820, and lasted 10 years.

According to the Petit Larousse : George IV , London 1762 - Windsor 1830, king of Great-Britain and Ireland, and king of Hanover (1820 - 1830). Eldest son of George III, he emancipated the catholics of Ireland.

 

William IV

of Hanover

(1765-1837)

 

In 1830, when George IV died, his younger brother succeeded him under the title of William IV. His reign only lasted 7 years.

According to the Petit Larousse : William IV, London 1765 - Windsor 1837, king of Great-Britain, Ireland and Hanover (1830 - 1837), son of George III.

 

See my coins of Victoria

Victoria

of Hanover

(1819-1901)

 

Victoria I reigned from 1837 to 1901, for 63 years !

According to the Petit Larousse : Victoria  I, London 1819 - Osborne, Wight island, 1901, queen of Great-Britain and Ireland (1837 - 1901) and empress of British Indies (1876 - 1901). Granddaughter of George III, she succeeded to his uncle Guillaume IV, dead heirless. Skillfully adviced by her first minister, Lord Melbourne, by her uncle Leopold  I of Belgium then by Albert of Saxe-Cobourg-Gotha (she married in 1840), Victoria brought swiftly back dignity and prestige to the Crown. Though she strictly applied the rules of the parliamentary system, the queen was several times in conflict with her main ministers (Wellington, Palmerston, Disraeli and Gladstone). Victoria deeply marked political life of Great-Britain which knew under her reign (the Victorian era) the apogee of its political and economic power.

 

See my coins of Edward VII

Edward VII

of Hanover Saxe-Coburg

(1841-1910)

 

Edward VII, son of Victoria, succeeded her in 1901, at the age of 59. His reign lasted 9 years. 

During his reign, Edward VII was the initiator of the Entente Cordiale with France.

According to the Petit Larousse : Edward VII , London 1841 - id. 1910, king of Great-Britain and Ireland (1901 - 1910), of the dynasty of Hanover. Son of the queen Victoria, he was greatly interested in the foreign policy and was the initiator of the Entente Cordiale with France (1904).

See entente cordiale

 

See my coins of George V

George V

of Windsor

(1865-1936)

 

George V, second son of Edward VII (the first died from a pneumonia at 28), became king in 1910, his reign lasted 26 years.

It was under the reign of George V that Great-Britain honoured the Entente Cordiale signed with France. From 1914, August, 4th, in accordance with the 1839 Treaty of London, protecting Belgian neutrality and French coasts, England declared war to Germany. 750 000 English and 200 000 soldiers of the British Empire died in World War I.

It was in 1917, July, 17th the royal House of England took the name of Windsor House (still used today), instead of House of Hanover Saxe-Cobourg, that reminded too much German roots.

According to the Petit Larousse : George V , London 1865 - Sandringham 1936, king of Great-Britain and of Ireland, and emperor of British Indies (1910 - 1936), of the dynasty of Hanover. Son of Edward VII, his reign was marked by the victorious participation of the British Empire in the WWI. He changed the name of the Hanover-Saxe-Cobourg dynasty for the Windsor dynasty (1917).

See page under British gold coinage


Edward VIII

of Windsor

(1894-1972)

 

Edward VIII, eldest son of George V, prepared to reign since he was a child, and made popular in the newspapers of the time, had to choose, in 1936, year of his father's death, between the Crown and an incompatible love with the royal label. He decided to abdicate, leaving the Crown to his younger brother, to be able to marry a divorced woman he was in love with. He received the title of Duke of Windsor as a compensation.

According to the Petit Larousse : Edward VIII , Richmond, today Richmond upon Thames, 1894 - Paris 1972, king of Great-Britain and of Northern Ireland in 1936, of Windsor dynasty. Eldest son of George V, he abdicated in 1936 to marry an American divorced woman, Mrs. Simpson, he then received the title of Duke of Windsor.

See Edward VIII abdicates in archives

 

See my coins of George VI

George VI

of Windsor

(1895-1952)

 

In 1936, George VI, second son of George V, became king of Great-Britain after the abdication of his older brother. He reigned until 1952, that is to say 16 years.

His reign had to deal with independence desires in the colonies. The empire of the British Indies emancipated in 1950 thanks to Ghandi. The legend Ind. Imp. for Indian Imperor or Emperor is dropped from all British coins !

According to the Petit Larousse : George VI , Sandringham 1895 - id. 1952, king of Great-Britain and of Northern Ireland (1936 - 1952), and emperor of British Indies (1936 - 1947), of the Windsor dynasty. Second son of George V, he suceeded to Edward VIII. Under his reign, Great-Britain successfully participated to the WWII.

 

Elizabeth II

of Windsor 

(Born on April 21, 1926)

 

Elizabeth II began her reign in 1952, after the death of her father (on February, 6 th , 1952). Her crowning took place during the following year.

This year 2012, she celebrated the sixtieth anniversary of her reign, her diamond jubilee. On this occasion, The Royal Mint stroke a very beautiful commemorative coin to mark this diamond jubilee. Two jubilees have already preceded the one of this year 2012. To begin with, there was the silver jubilee. It was in 1977 and it celebrated her 25 years of reign. Then, there was the gold jubilee, which took place in 2002 and commemorated her 50 years of reign.

Besides, on April 21st of 2012, the Queen celebrated her 86 th birthday. Her longevity will maybe allow her to have a longer reign than Victoria.

According to the Petit Larousse : Elisabeth II, London, 1926, Queen of Great-Britain and chief of Commonwealth since 1952, of Windsor dynasty. Daughter of George VI, she married Philip, Duke of Edinburgh in 1947, they had four children : Charles (Prince of Wales), Anne, Andrew and Edward.

Her potential successors are...

 

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Page created in 2004, translated in 2006, december, 10th | Last update of this page : Friday, August 3rd, 2012

 
 

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